Irenka Suto

Irenka Suto

I studied at the University of Cambridge, obtaining a BA in Natural Sciences (Part 2 Psychology) and a PhD from the Department of Psychiatry. I stayed on to conduct post-doctoral research, publishing a book and various journal articles on financial decision-making and the assessment of mental capacity among people with intellectual disabilities.

I joined Cambridge Assessment in 2004, working initially as a Research Officer, and then as a Senior Research Officer. I spent several years applying and developing judgement and decision-making theory in the context of examination marking and grading. I also developed a new interest in the curricula linked to assessments, exploring concepts of so-called 21st Century skills, research projects for secondary school students, and alternatives to the most popular qualifications.

Since 2012 I have been a Principal Research Officer. I have led several programmes of research to support the reform of A levels and GCSEs, and I currently lead the qualifications development strand of our divisional research programme. I use a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods, and I remain very interested in the many human judgements and decisions entailed in educational assessment, as made by students, teachers and examiners. In particular, I am currently interested in the causes of profession error and why detection is not always easy.

Outside of work, most of my time is spent with my young and energetic family. I also enjoy baking, playing classical music, and holidaying in mountainous areas.

Publications

2018

An exploration of the nature and assessment of student reflection

Shaw, S., Kuvalja, M. and Suto, I. (2018). An exploration of the nature and assessment of student reflection. Research Matters: A Cambridge Assessment publication, 25, 2-8.

Reflection is often considered to be one of the so-called ‘21st century’ or ‘transversal’ skills, or ‘life competencies’. Many societies value people who can reflect upon their own beliefs and experiences in the classroom and beyond, and learn from them. It is also important to be able to contemplate the work of others at a deep level. In this article, we review some of the academic literature on reflection and explore ways in which it is assessed in educational contexts. The Advanced Subsidiary (AS) level qualification in Global Perspectives and Research offered by Cambridge Assessment International Education serves as a case study for how reflection can be assessed as part of a taught curriculum.

2016

Extending educational taxonomies from general to applied education: Can they be used to write and review assessment criteria?
Greatorex, J. and Suto, I. (2016). Paper presented at the 8th Biennial Conference of the European Association for Research in Learning and Instruction (EARLI) SIG 1 - Assessment and Evaluation, Munich, Germany, 24-26 August 2016
Assessing the transition between school and university: Differences in assessment between A level and university in English.
Wilson, F., Child, S., and Suto, I. (2016). Assessing the transition between school and university: Differences in assessment between A level and university in English. Arts and Humanities in Higher Education, 41(1), 1-21.

2014

Course struggle, exam stress, or a fear of the unknown? A study of A level students’ assessment preferences and the reasons behind them
Suto, I., Elliott, G., Rushton, N. and Mehta, S. (2014). Course struggle, exam stress, or a fear of the unknown? A study of A level students’ assessment preferences and the reasons behind them. Educational Futures (ejournal of the British Educational Studies Association), 6(2).
The Cambridge approach to 21st Century skills: definitions, development and dilemmas for assessment
Suto, I. and Eccles, H. (2014). Paper presented at the annual conference of the International Association for Educational Assessment (IAEA), Singapore, 25-30 May 2014.

2013

A comparison of assessment at school and university: More than just increasing demands.
Wilson, F., Child, S. F. J., & Suto, I. (2013). A comparison of assessment at school and university: More than just increasing demands. Paper presented at the European Conference of Educational Research, 2013.
The first year beyond freshers week: An exploration of additional support and assessment practices at university
Child, S., Mehta, S., Wilson, F., Suto, I. and Brown, S. (2013). Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association (BERA) annual conference, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK, 3-5 September 2013.
A level reform: Is the Government in tune with its stakeholders?

Suto, I., Mehta, S., Child, S., Wilson, F. and Jeffrey, E. (2013). A level reform: Is the Government in tune with its stakeholders? Research Matters: A Cambridge Assessment publication, 16, 9-14.

Reformed GCE A levels are on the educational horizon for many students and their teachers. Awarding bodies are in the process of redeveloping their courses and from September 2015, the new syllabuses will be taught in sixth forms across England. In this article, we give a chronological account of the recent developments in Government policy which have fed into these plans. Alongside this account, we describe five studies that we have undertaken within our Higher Education (HE) Engagement research programme. An overarching aim of our research has been to ascertain the views and experiences of stakeholders in schools, colleges and universities on multiple aspects of A level reform.

Thrown in at the deep end? Exploring students', lecturers' and teachers' views on additional support lessons at university
Mehta, S., Child, S. F. J., Suto, I., & Brown, S. (2013) Conference proceedings. The Future of Education. 3rd Conference
21st Century Skills: Ancient, ubiquitous, enigmatic?

Suto, I. (2013). 21st Century Skills: Ancient, ubiquitous, enigmatic? Research Matters: A Cambridge Assessment publication, 15, 2-8.

The understanding and skills needed to compete in today’s global economy are arguably quite different to those upon which 19th and 20th century education systems have traditionally focussed. Life has become much more international, multicultural and inter-connected. Seismic advances have occurred in ICT and in access to it. These have enabled the economies of developed countries, including the UK’s, to shift from a basis of material goods and services to one of information and knowledge. The aim of this article is to explore some of the benefits and risks of building pedagogies and curricula around 21st Century skills. I begin by outlining some conceptualisations of 21st Century skills. I then address the question of how their development in young people can best be supported; I describe recent examples of alternative approaches used in the UK and internationally, including extended projects for sixth-form students. I also start to consider the value placed by stakeholders on the summative assessment of 21st Century skills, and finally, the feasibility of such assessment for test developers.

Independent research at A level: Students’ and teachers’ experiences

Mehta, S., Suto, I., Elliott, G. and Rushton, N. (2013). Independent research at A level: Students’ and teachers’ experiences. Research Matters: A Cambridge Assessment publication, 15, 9-16. 

Our aims were to explore teachers’ and students’ experiences and perspectives of independent research at A level. The study focused Economics, French and Mathematics. It investigated: (i) the extent to which teachers think research and investigative skills can be developed at A level; (ii) the resources and guidance that students use; and (iii) whether subject-specific differences arise. A questionnaire and follow-on interview methodology was used. 47 Mathematics teachers, 24 Economics teachers and 15 French teachers participated. Additionally, 299 Mathematics students, 228 Economics students and 136 French students took part.

About half of the French and Economics teachers were found to assign investigative/research tasks to their students at least once a fortnight. On the other hand, about half of the Mathematics teachers set such tasks less often and a further 40% never set them at all. The frequency with which the teachers set investigation/research tasks as homework/private study showed the same subject-specific differences as the classroom context. The internet was the most frequently listed source that students across all three subjects consulted while engaging in independent research. The interview data shed further light on general and specific internet usage. Overall, the findings explain some of the variation in preparedness of new undergraduates for independent study and research-related tasks at university.

2012

Analyse, Evaluate, Review….How Do Teachers with Differing Subject Specialisms Interpret Common Assessment Vocabulary?
Nadas, R., Suto, I. and Grayson, R. (2012). Paper presented at the European Conference for Educational Research (ECER), University of Cadiz, Spain, 18-21 September 2012.
An exploration of how independent research and project management skills can be developed and assessed among 16 to 19 year olds
Suto, I., Nadas, R. and Chambers, L. (2012). Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association (BERA) conference, Manchester, UK, 4-6 September 2012.
Students’ and teachers’ views and experiences of A Level module re-sits
Gill, T. and Suto, I. (2012) Paper presented at British Educational Research Association (BERA) conference, Manchester, September 2012
Cambridge Assessment HE research: Survey of lecturers - executive summary
Suto, I. (2012). Cambridge Assessment Research Report. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Assessment.
Cambridge Assessment HE research: Qualitative investigation - executive summary
Mehta, S., Suto, I. and Brown, S. (2012). Cambridge Assessment Research Report. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Assessment.
Starting them young: research and project management opportunities for 16 to 19 year olds

Suto, I. and Nadas, R. (2012). Starting them young: research and project management opportunities for 16 to 19 year olds. Research Matters: A Cambridge Assessment publication, 13, 27-31.

Several educational routes have been developed which entail project work with a specific focus on independent learning and research. In this article we outline some of the options that exist at Level 3, primarily for 16 to 19 year olds (Years 12 and 13) in the UK and internationally. We then conduct a more detailed comparison of two routes: the Extended Project Qualification, and the International Baccalaureate Extended Essay. Many stakeholders may be unaware of the differences in the aims, structure, and scope of these routes. It is important for students and teachers to be conscious of the differences so that they can make informed decisions about what is most suitable for them. End-users such as higher education admissions tutors and employers also need to understand the differences in order to weigh up the experiences and achievements of applicants fairly.

2011

An exploration of the script features that most influence expert judgements in three methods of determining examination grade boundaries.
Suto, I., and Novakovic, N. (2012). An exploration of the script features that most influence expert judgements in three methods of determining examination grade boundaries. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice, 19(3), 301-320.
Going beyond the syllabus: A study of A level Mathematics teachers and students.
Suto, I., Elliott, G., Rushton, N., and Mehta, S. (2011) Educational Studies.
What form of feedback most motivates students? A study of teachers' perceptions of the Impact of assessment
Rushton, N., Suto, I., Elliott. and Mehta, S. (2011). Paper presented at the AEA-Europe annual conference, Belfast, November 2011.
Independent research at A level: students' and teachers' experiences
Mehta, S., Suto, I., Elliott, G. and Rushton, N. (2011). Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association annual conference, University of London Institute of Education, September 2011.
Going beyond the syllabus: views from teachers and students of A level mathematics
Suto, I., Elliott, G., Rushton, N. and Mehta, S. (2011). Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association annual conference, University of London Institute of Education, September 2011.
Small is beautiful? An exploration of class size at A level
Rushton, N., Suto, I., Elliott, G. and Mehta, S. (2011). Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association annual conference, University of London Institute of Education, September 2011.
The interrelations of features of questions, mark schemes and examinee responses and their impact upon marker agreement.
Black, B., Suto, I., and Bramley, T. (2011) Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice (Special Issue), 18, 3, 295-318
Why study Economics? Perspectives from 16 to 19 year old students
Mehta, S., Suto, I., Elliott, G. and Rushton, N. (2013). Paper presented at the International Association for Citizenship, Social and Economics Education annual conference, Bath Spa University, June 2013.
Who should mark what? A study of factors affecting marking accuracy in a biology examination.
Suto, I., Nádas, R., and Bell, J.F. (2011) Research Papers in Education, 26, 1, 21-51
A critical review of some research methods used to explore rater cognition
Suto, I. (2011). Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association (AERA) Annual Conference, New Orleans, LA, USA, 8-12 April 2011.
Why study economics? Perspectives from 16 to 19 year old students
Mehta, S., Suto, I., Elliott, G. and Rushton, N. (2011) Citizenship, Social and Economics Education

2010

Investigating examiners' thinking: using Kelly's Repertory Grid technique to explore cognitive marking strategies
Suto, I. and Nadas, R. (2010) Research in Education, 84, 38-53
Speed isn’t everything: a study of examination marking
Nadas, R. and Suto, I. (2010) Educational Studies, 36, 1, 115-118
When developing and validating assessments, what are the key issues in psychological research?
Suto, I. & Shaw, S. (2010) British Psychological Society Annual Conference, Stratford upon Avon
The interrelations of features of questions, mark schemes and examinee responses and their impact on marker agreement
Suto, I., Bramley, T. & Black, B. (2010) European Conference on Educational Research (ECER), Helsinki.
How well can teachers assess pre-university students’ research reports? Findings from an empirical study
Suto, I. & Shaw, S. (2010) European Conference on Educational Research (ECER), Helsinki.
Practising what we preach: how do awarding bodies make use of psychological Research methods?
Suto, I. (2010) Association for the Teaching of Psychology Annual Conference, Keele University
A tricky task for teachers: assessing pre-university students' research reports

Suto, I. and Shaw, S.  (2010). A tricky task for teachers: assessing pre-university students' research reports. Research Matters: A Cambridge Assessment publication, 10, 10-16.

In the UK and internationally, many students preparing for university are given the challenge of conducting independent research and writing up a report of around 4,000 or 5,000 words. Such research activities provide students with opportunities to investigate a specialist area of study in greater depth, to cross boundaries with an inter-disciplinary enquiry, or to explore a novel non-school subject such as archaeology, cosmology or anthropology. In this study, we explored the feasibility of applying a single mark scheme to research reports covering diverse topics in order to reward generic research skills. Our aim was to investigate the reliability with which teachers can mark diverse research reports, using four different generic assessment objectives. We also investigated teachers’ views in applying generic mark schemes, particularly when marking reports on unfamiliar topics. Our analyses indicated that marking reliability was good, though like almost all qualifications, imperfect. Possible reasons and explanations for marking difficulty related to subject knowledge, the clarity of student thought, and the overall level of student performance. 

2009

What influences moderation and standards maintenance in school-based summative assessment?
Suto, I. and Shiell, H. (2009) Education Journal, 119, 41-43
Creating research programmes to support the development and validation of qualifications
Suto, I. & Shaw, S. (2009) Association for Educational Assessment (AEA) - Europe, Malta
How should grade boundaries be determined in examinations? An exploration of the script features that influence expert judgements
Novakovic, N. & Suto, I. (2009) European Conference on Educational Research (ECER), Vienna
Capturing expert judgement in grading: an examiner's perspective

King, P., Novakovic, N. and Suto, I. (2009). Capturing expert judgement in grading: an examiner's perspective. Research Matters: A Cambridge Assessment publication, 8, 32-33.

There exist several methods of capturing expert judgement which have been used, or could potentially be used, in the process of determining grade boundaries for examinations. In a recent study, we sought to explore the judgements entailed in three such methods: (i) rank ordering, (ii) traditional awarding, and (iii) Thurstone pairs. A key aim was to identify the features of candidates’ scripts that affect the judgements made in each of the three methods. To achieve this, sixty experienced examiners participated in the study. Each made judgements about overall script quality, using each method on a different batch of scripts. Additionally, each examiner completed a research task in which he or she was asked to rate a fourth batch of scripts for a series of features, using rating scales devised by the researchers. Subsequent data analysis entailed relating the judgemental data on script quality to the script feature data. Immediately after taking part in the study, one examiner recorded and offered the Research Division his views and experiences of participation. His perspective is the focus of this article.

Thinking about making the right mark: Using cognitive strategy research to explore examiner training

Suto, I., Greatorex, J. and Nadas, R. (2009). Thinking about making the right mark: Using cognitive strategy research to explore examiner training. Research Matters: A Cambridge Assessment publication, 8, 23-32.

In this article, we draw together research on examiner training and on the nature of the judgements entailed in the marking process. We report new analyses of data from two recent empirical studies, Greatorex and Bell (2008) and Suto and Nadas (2008a), exploring possible relationships between the efficacy of training and the complexity of the cognitive marking strategies apparently needed to mark the examination questions under consideration. In the first study reported in this article, we considered the benefits of three different training procedures for experienced examiners marking AS-level biology questions. In the second study reported here, we explored the effects of a single training procedure on experienced and inexperienced (graduate) examiners marking GCSE mathematics and physics questions. In both studies, it was found that: (i) marking accuracy was better after training than beforehand; and (ii) the effect of training on change in marking accuracy varied across all individual questions. Our hypothesis that training would be more beneficial for apparently more complex cognitive marking strategy questions than for apparently simple cognitive marking strategy questions was upheld for both subjects in Study 2, but not in Study 1.

Investigating examiners’ thinking: using Kelly’s Repertory Grid technique to explore cognitive marking strategies
Suto, I. and Nadas, R. (2009). Paper presented at the 14th International Conference on Thinking. Pages 210-226 in the Conference Proceedings, Kuala Lumpur, 22-26 June 2009.

2008

A Quantitative Analysis of Cognitive Strategy Usage in the Marking of Two GCSE Examinations
Suto, W. M. I. and Greatorex, J. (2008) Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice, 15, 1, 73-89
What determines GCSE marking accuracy? An exploration of expertise among maths and physics markers
Suto, W.M.I. and Nadas, R. (2008) Research Papers in Education, 23, 4, 477-497
What do GCSE examiners think of ‘thinking aloud’? Findings from an exploratory study
Greatorex, J. and Suto, W.M.I. (2008). What do GCSE examiners think of ‘thinking aloud’? Findings from an exploratory study. Educational Research, 40, 4, 319-331
What attracts judges’ attention? A comparison of three grading methods
Greatorex, J., Novakovic, N. & Suto, I. (2008) International Association for Educational Assessment (IAEA) Conference, Cambridge
Towards a new model of marking accuracy: An investigation of IGCSE biology
Suto, I. & Nadas, R. (2008) International Association for Educational Assessment (IAEA) Conference, Cambridge
Exploring the role of human judgement in examination marking: findings from some empirical studies
Greatorex, J., Suto, I. & Nadas, R. (2008) Association of Language Testers in Europe (ALTE), Cambridge
What goes through an examiner's mind? Using verbal protocols to gain insights into the GCSE marking process
Suto, W. M. I.and Greatorex, J. (2008) British Educational Research Journal, 34, 2, 213-233
An exploration of self-confidence and insight into marking accuracy among GCSE maths and physics markers

Nadas, R. and Suto, I. (2008). An exploration of self-confidence and insight into marking accuracy among GCSE maths and physics markers. Research Matters: A Cambridge Assessment publication, 5, 9-15.

A considerable volume of literature in education and occupational research investigates issues in self-confidence and insight. However, GCSE markers’ perceptions of their marking performance have not, to our knowledge, been examined. Exploring markers’ perceptions is important for several reasons. First, if markers’ estimates of their own performance prove to be accurate, then this information could be used by Awarding Bodies in standardisation procedures to identify and discuss examination questions that markers have difficulties with. If, however, markers’ insight proves to be unreliable and unrelated to their actual marking accuracy, then their feedback on ‘problem areas’ could be misleading: for example, when conducting standardisation procedures, Principal Examiners might find themselves focussing on the ‘wrong’ questions. Secondly, investigating whether self-confidence and insight change or become more accurate with more marking practice or more feedback could inform marker training practices.

In this article, we present research which explored GCSE markers’ perceptions of their own marking accuracy. Markers’ levels of self-confidence and insight, and possible changes in these measures over the course of the marking process, were investigated. The term ‘self-confidence’ here denotes markers’ post-marking estimates of how accurately they thought they had marked a sample of questions; ‘insight’ refers to the relationship between markers’ actual marking accuracy and estimated accuracy, indicating how precise their estimates were. Overall, we found very different patterns of self-confidence and insight for maths and physics markers.

Investigating the judgemental marking process: an overview of our recent research

Suto, I., Crisp, V. and Greatorex, J. (2008). Investigating the judgemental marking process: an overview of our recent research. Research Matters: A Cambridge Assessment publication, 5, 6-9.

This article gives an overview of a number of linked studies which explored the process of marking GCSE and A-level examination questions from a number of different angles. Key aims of these studies were to provide insights into how examiner training and marking accuracy could be improved, as well as reasoned justifications for how item types could be assigned to different groups of examiners in the future. The research studies combined several approaches, exploring both the information that people attend to when marking items and the sequences of mental operations involved. Examples include studies that used the think-aloud method to identify the cognitive marking strategies entailed in marking student responses, or to explore the broader socio-cognitive influences on the marking process. Other examples explored the relationship between cognitive marking strategy complexity and marking accuracy.

This article brings together the findings from these various related studies to summarise the influences and processes that have been identified as important to the marking process from the research conducted so far.

2007

An exploration of self-confidence and insight into marking accuracy among GCSE maths and physics markers
Nadas, R. and Suto, I. (2007). Paper presented at the annual conference of the International Association for Educational Research (IAEA), Baku, Azerbaijan, 16-21 September 2007.
The ‘Marking Expertise’ projects: Empirical investigations of some popular assumptions
Suto, I. and Nadas, R. (2007) International Association for Educational Assessment (IAEA) Conference, Azerbaijan
Exploring how the cognitive strategies used to mark examination questions relate to the efficacy of examiner training
Greatorex, J., Nádas, R., Suto, I. and Bell, J F. (2007) European Conference on Educational Research (ECER) Conference, Ghent, Belgium
An exploration of self-confidence and insight into marking accuracy among GCSE maths and physics markers
Nadas, R. and Suto, I. (2007) British Educational Research Association (BERA) Annual Conference
What makes some GCSE examination questions harder to mark than others? An exploration of question features related to marking accuracy
Suto, I. and Nadas, R. (2007) British Educational Research Association (BERA) Annual Conference
The ‘Marking Expertise’ projects: Empirical investigations of some popular assumptions

Suto, I. and Nadas, R. (2007). The ‘Marking Expertise’ projects: Empirical investigations of some popular assumptions. Research Matters: A Cambridge Assessment publication, 4, 2-5.

Recent transformations in professional marking practice, including moves to mark some examination papers on screen, have raised important questions about the demands and expertise that the marking process entails. What makes some questions harder to mark accurately than others, and how much does marking accuracy vary among individuals
with different backgrounds and experiences? We are conducting a series of interrelated studies, exploring variations in accuracy and expertise in GCSE examination marking.

In our first two linked studies, collectively known as Marking Expertise Project 1, we investigated marking on selected GCSE maths and physics questions from OCR’s June 2005 examination papers. Our next two linked studies, which comprise Marking Expertise Project 2, are currently underway and involve both CIE and OCR examinations. This time we are
focussing on International (I) GCSE biology questions from November 2005 and GCSE business studies questions from June 2006. All four studies sit within a conceptual framework in which we have proposed a number of factors that might contribute to accurate marking. For any particular GCSE examination question, accuracy can be maximised through increasing the marker’s personal expertise and/or through decreasing the demands of the marking task, and most relevant factors can be grouped according to which of these two routes they contribute to. In this article, we present a summary of some key aspects and findings of the two studies comprising our first project. We end by looking ahead to our second  project on marking expertise, which is currently in progress.

2006

What do GCSE examiners think of 'thinking aloud'? Interesting findings from a preliminary study
Suto, I. and Greatorex, J. (2006) British Educational Research Association (BERA) Annual Conference
A cognitive psychological exploration of the GCSE marking process

Suto, I. and Greatorex, J. (2006). A cognitive psychological exploration of the GCSE marking process. Research Matters: A Cambridge Assessment publication, 2, 7-11.

GCSEs play a crucial role in secondary education throughout England and Wales, and the process of marking them, which entails extensive human judgement, is a key determinant in the futures of many sixteen-year-olds. The aims of our study were to investigate the cognitive strategies used when marking GCSEs and to interpret them within the context of psychological theories of human judgement.

Two GCSE examinations were considered: an intermediate tier Mathematics paper, which used a ‘points-based’ marking scheme, and a foundation tier Business Studies paper, which used a ‘levels-based’ scheme. For each subject, a group of six experienced examiners marked four identical script samples each. The first three of these samples were marked silently. Whilst marking the fourth sample, the examiners were asked to ‘think aloud’ concurrently. Using a semi-structured interview schedule, the examiners were later questioned about their marking experiences retrospectively.

A qualitative analysis of the verbal protocol data enabled us to propose a tentative model of marking, which includes five distinct cognitive marking strategies: matching, scanning, evaluating, scrutinising, and no response. These strategies were broadly validated not only in the retrospective interviews with the participating examiners, but also by other senior mathematics and business studies examiners.

International perspectives on vocational education: What can we learn from each other?

Suto, I. and Green, S. (2006).  International perspectives on vocational education: What can we learn from each other? Research Matters: A Cambridge Assessment publication, 2, 2-7.

The broad aim of Vocational Education and Training (VET) is to provide students with the technical skills and knowledge needed to enter the workforce. It exists for an extensive range of subject areas and may be delivered through many different kinds of training institutions and enterprises. Over the past four years, this huge area of education and assessment has received close scrutiny from the Government and others, as part of a broader review of education and skills among 14 to 19 year olds (Tomlinson, 2004; Department for Education and Skills, 2005). Given that this process has resulted in proposals for considerable reform of VET for this age group, we deemed it important to know more about the international context within which they are set. Who does VET affect globally, and what might we learn from the experiences of other countries? The aims of this project, therefore, were to identify and examine two main types of data: (i) on the extent of participation in VET and its associated assessment worldwide; and (ii) relating to key differences in the VET systems of different countries.

There were three stages to the project:
1. A review of the quantitative data available.
2. A review of other key literature.
3. A discussion group at an international conference.

In this report, we summarise some of the main findings from each stage. We conclude that, in general, there is a paucity of internationally comparable quantitative data relating to vocational education and training.

An empirical exploration of human judgement in the marking of school examinations
Greatorex, J. & Suto, I. (2006) International Association for Educational Assessment (IAEA) Conference, Singapore

2005

What goes through a marker’s mind? Gaining theoretical insights into the A-level and GCSE marking process
Greatorex, J. and Suto, I. (2005). Paper presented at the Association for Educational Assessment (AEA) - Europe, Dublin, Republic of Ireland, 3 November 2005.
International perspectives on assessment in vocational qualifications (ages 14-19): What can we learn from each other?
Suto, I. and Green, S. (2005). Paper presented at the Association for Educational Assessment (AEA) - Europe, Dublin, Republic of Ireland, 3 November 2005.
What goes through an examiner’s mind? Using verbal protocols to gain insights into the GCSE marking process
Suto, I. and Greatorex, J. (2005) British Educational Research Association (BERA) Annual Conference

Research Matters

Research Matters

Research Matters is our free biannual publication which allows us to share our assessment research, in a range of fields, with the wider assessment community.