Tim Gill

Tim Gill

I joined Cambridge Assessment’s Research Division in 2006, where my main areas of interest are the application of multi-level models in analysing assessment data, and the analysis of patterns of uptake and attainment in schools and colleges.

My recent projects have included an investigation into the effect of taking the Extended Project Qualification on performance in other qualifications, the impact on qualification uptake of the introduction of the UK government’s Progress 8 performance measure, and an analysis of which GCSE subjects students are most likely to achieve their best grade in.

I have a BSc in Economics and Politics from the University of East Anglia and an MSc in Applied Statistics from Sheffield Hallam University.

My main interests outside of work include reading, playing 5-a-side football, going to gigs, and entertaining my 6 year old daughter. I am also a governor at my daughter’s school.

Publications

2017

Candidates awarded the A* grade at A level in 2016 - Data
Gill, T. (2017). Statistics Report series No. 119
Candidates awarded the A* grade at A level in 2016 - Data
Gill, T. (2017). Statistics Report series No. 119 - Data
The impact of the introduction of Progress 8 on the uptake and provision of qualifications in English schools
Gill, T. (2017). Cambridge Assessment Research Report. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Assessment.
Provision of GCE A level subjects 2016
Gill, T. (2017). Statistics Report series No. 117
Provision of GCE A level subjects 2016 - Data
Gill, T. (2017). Statistics Report series No. 117 - Data
Uptake of GCE A level subject 2016
Carroll, M. and Gill, T. (2017). Statistics Report series No. 116
Uptake of GCE A level subject 2016 - Data
Carroll, M. and Gill, T. (2017). Statistics Report series No. 116 - Data
Provision of GCSE subjects 2016
Gill, T. (2017). Statistics Report series No. 115
Provision of GCSE subjects 2016 - Data
Gill, T. (2017). Statistics Report series No. 115 - Data
Uptake of GCSE subjects 2016
Gill, T. (2017). Statistics Report series No. 114
Uptake of GCSE subjects 2016 - Data
Gill, T. (2017). Statistics Report series No. 114 - Data
Uptake of GCSE subjects in 2015 by alternative school type classifications
Gill, T. (2017). Statistics Report Series No. 113
Higher education choices of secondary school graduates with a Science, Technology, Engineering or Mathematics (STEM) background.
Gill, T., Vidal Rodeiro, C.L., and Zanini, N. (2017). Higher education choices of secondary school graduates with a Science, Technology, Engineering or Mathematics (STEM) background. Journal of Further and Higher Education (ahead of print).
An analysis of the effect of taking the EPQ on performance in other Level 3 qualifications

Gill, T. (2017). An analysis of the effect of taking the EPQ on performance in other Level 3 qualifications. Research Matters: A Cambridge Assessment publication, 23, 27-34.

The Extended Project Qualification (EPQ) is a stand-alone qualification taken by sixth form students. It involves undertaking a substantial project, where the outcome can range from writing a dissertation or report to putting on a performance.  It is possible that some of the skills learnt by students whilst undertaking their project (e.g. independent research, problem-solving) could help them in other qualifications taken at the same time. Two separate investigations were undertaken: firstly, the performance of individual students was analysed, using a multilevel regression model to compare EPQ and non-EPQ students. The results showed that there was a small, but statistically significant effect, with those taking EPQ achieving better results on average in their A levels. The second investigation analysed performance at school level, using a regression to model the effect of increasing the percentage of students in a school taking EPQ. The results showed a significant and positive effect of increasing the percentage of students taking EPQ. However, the effect was very small.

Preparing students for university study: a statistical comparison of different post-16 qualifications
Gill, T. (2017). Preparing students for university study: a statistical comparison of different post-16 qualifications. Research Papers in Education: 1-19.
Ranking of candidates' best GCSE grades by subject in 2015
Gill, T. (2017) Statistics Report Series No. 112
Ranking of candidates' best GCSE grades by subject in 2015 - Data
Gill, T. (2017) Statistics Report Series No. 112 - Data
Candidates awarded A* and A grades at GCSE in 2015
Gill, T. (2017). Statistics Report Series No. 111
Candidates awarded A* and A grades at GCSE in 2015 - Data
Gill, T. (2017). Statistics Report Series No. 111 - Data

2016

An analysis of the effect of taking the EPQ on performance in other level 3 qualifications
Gill, T. (2016). Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association (BERA) conference, Leeds, 13-15 September 2016
The re-sitting patterns of a cohort of A level students
Crawford, C. & Gill, T. (2016) Statistics Report Series No.110
The re-sitting patterns of a cohort of A level students - Data
Crawford, C. & Gill, T. (2016) Statistics Report Series No.110 - Data
Uptake of GCE A level subjects 2015
Gill, T. & Williamson, J. (2016) Statistics Report Series No.109
Uptake of GCE A level subjects 2015 - Data
Gill, T. & Williamson, J. (2016) Statistics Report Series No.109 - Data
Provision of GCE A level subjects 2015
Gill, T. & Williamson, J. (2016) Statistics Report Series No. 108
Provision of GCE A level subjects 2015 - Data
Gill, T. & Williamson, J. (2016) Statistics Report Series No. 108 - Data
Uptake of GCSE subjects 2015
Gill, T. & Williamson, J. (2016) Statistics Report Series No.107
Provision of GCSE subjects 2015
Gill, T. & Williamson, J. (2016) Statistics Report Series No. 106
Uptake of GCSE subjects 2015 - Data
Gill, T. & Williamson, J. (2016) Statistics Report Series No.107 - Data
Provision of GCSE subjects 2015 - Data
Gill, T. & Williamson, J. (2016) Statistics Report Series No. 106 - Data
Uptake of level 3 qualifications in English schools 2015
Gill, T. (2016) Statistics Report Series No.105
Uptake of level 3 qualifications in English schools 2015 - Data
Gill, T. (2016) Statistics Report Series No.105 - Data
Provision of level 3 qualifications in English schools 2015
Gill, T. (2016) Statistics Report Series No.104
Provision of level 3 qualifications in English schools 2015 - Data
Gill, T. (2016) Statistics Report Series No.104 - Data
Uptake of level 2 qualifications in English schools 2015 - Data
Gill, T. (2016) Statistics Report Series No. 103 - Data
Uptake of level 2 qualifications in English schools 2015
Gill, T. (2016) Statistics Report Series No. 103
Provision of level 2 qualifications in English schools 2015
Gill, T. (2016) Statistics Report Series No. 102
Provision of level 2 qualifications in English schools 2015 - Data
Gill, T. (2016) Statistics Report Series No. 102 - Data
Uptake and results in the Extended Project Qualification 2008-2015
Gill, T. (2016) Statistics Report Series No. 101
GCSE Uptake and Results, by School Type 2005-2014
Gill, T. (2016) Statistics Report Series No. 100
A level Uptake and Results, by School Type 2005-2014
Gill, T. (2016) Statistics Report Series No. 99
GCSE Uptake and Results, by Gender 2005-2014
Gill, T. (2016) Statistics Report Series No. 98
A level Uptake and Results, by Gender 2005-2014
Gill, T. (2016) Statistics Report Series No. 97
Assessing the equivalencies of the UCAS tariff for different qualifications

Gill, T. (2016). Assessing the equivalencies of the UCAS tariff for different qualifications. Research Matters: A Cambridge Assessment publication, 21, 16-23.

In the United Kingdom (UK) the Universities and College Admissions Service (UCAS) provides the application process for most universities. The UCAS tariff points system is used by universities to help them select students for their courses. Each grade in eligible qualifications is allocated a points score,which can then be summed in order to provide an overall points score for each student. The allocation of points is such that,in theory,students with the same overall points score gained from different qualifications can be considered to be of equivalent ability or potential. The purpose of this article is to test whether this assumption works in practice, by calculating empirical equivalencies of the UCAS tariff for different qualification.

2015

Students’ choices in Higher Education
Gill, T., Vidal Rodeiro, C.L. and Zanini, N. (2015) Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association (BERA) conference, Belfast, 15-17 September 2015
An investigation of the motivations underpinning student and teacher topic choice in History qualifications
Child, S., Darlington, E. and Gill, T. (2015). Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association (BERA) conference, Belfast, 15-17 September 2015
Using generalised boosting models to evaluate the UCAS tariff

Gill, T. (2015). Using generalised boosting models to evaluate the UCAS tariff. Research Matters: A Cambridge Assessment publication, 20, 2-6.

The Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS) is a UK-based organisation providing the application process for almost all British universities. The UCAS tariff points system is used by universities to help select students for entry to their courses. Each grade in a qualification has a certain number of UCAS points allocated to it, which are then summed to provide an overall tariff points score for each student. The assumption made is that two students with the same UCAS tariff gained from different qualifications are of the same ability, or have the same potential to achieve at university. This article uses a statistical technique known as generalised boosting models (GBMs) to evaluate the use of the UCAS tariff as a predictor of degree outcome.

Candidates awarded the A star grade at A level in 2014
Gill, T. (2015) Statistics Report Series No. 92
Candidates awarded the A star grade at A level in 2014 - Data
Gill, T. (2015) Statistics Report Series No. 92 - Data
The accuracy of forecast grades for OCR GCSEs in June 2014
Gill, T. & Benton, T. (2015) Statistics Report Series No. 91
The accuracy of forecast grades for OCR A levels in June 2014
Gill, T. & Benton, T. (2015) Statistics Report Series No. 90
The accuracy of forecast grades for OCR GCSEs in June 2013
Gill, T. & Chang, Y. (2015) Statistics Report Series No. 89
Provision of level 3 qualifications in English schools 2014
Gill, T. (2015) Statistics Report Series No. 87
Provision of level 3 qualifications in English schools 2014 - Data
Gill, T. (2015) Statistics Report Series No. 87 - Data
Uptake of level 3 qualifications in English schools 2014
Gill, T. (2015) Statistics Report Series No. 86
Uptake of level 3 qualifications in English schools 2014 - Data
Gill, T. (2015) Statistics Report Series No. 86 - Data
Provision of level 2 qualifications in English schools 2014
Gill, T. (2015) Statistics Report Series No. 85
Provision of level 2 qualifications in English schools 2014 - Data
Gill, T. (2015) Statistics Report Series No. 85 - Data
Uptake of level 2 qualifications in English schools 2014
Gill, T. (2015) Statistics Report Series No. 84
Uptake of level 2 qualifications in English schools 2014 - Data
Gill, T. (2015) Statistics Report Series No. 84 - Data
Provision of GCE A Level subjects 2014
Gill, T. (2015) Statistics Report Series No. 83
Provision of GCE A Level subjects 2014 - Data
Gill, T. (2015) Statistics Report Series No. 83 - Data
Uptake of GCE A Level subjects 2014
Gill, T. (2015) Statistics Report Series No. 82
Uptake of GCE A Level subjects 2014 - Data
Gill, T. (2015) Statistics Report Series No. 82 - Data
Provision of GCSE subjects 2014
Gill, T. (2015) Statistics Report Series No. 81
Provision of GCSE subjects 2014 - Data
Gill, T. (2015) Statistics Report Series No. 81 - Data
Uptake of GCSE subjects 2014
Gill, T. (2015) Statistics Report Series No. 80
Uptake of GCSE subjects 2014 - Data
Gill, T. (2015) Statistics Report Series No. 80 - Data
GCSE Uptake and Results, by School Type 2004-2013
Gill, T. (2015) Statistics Report Series No. 79
A Level Uptake and Results, by School Type 2004-2013
Gill, T. (2015) Statistics Report Series No. 78
GCSE Uptake and Results, by Gender 2004-2013
Gill, T. (2015) Statistics Report Series No. 77
A Level Uptake and Results, by Gender 2004-2013
Gill, T. (2015) Statistics Report Series No. 76

2014

An investigation of the effect of early entry on overall GCSE performance, using a Propensity Score Matching method
Gill, T. (2014) Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association (BERA) conference, London, 23-25 September 2014
Entry for tiers in Science and Mathematics GCSEs: teachers’ views
Wilson, F. and Gill, T. (2014). Cambridge Assessment Research Report. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Assessment.
Predictive validity of level 3 qualifications
Gill, T. and Vidal Rodeiro, C.L. (2014) Cambridge Assessment Research Report. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Assessment.
The uptake of Modern Foreign Languages at GCSE in 2013
Gill, T. (2014) Statistics Report Series No. 74
The uptake of Modern Foreign Languages at GCSE in 2013 - Data
Gill, T. (2014) Statistics Report Series No. 74 - Data
Provision of GCE A level subjects 2013
Gill, T. (2014) Statistics Report Series No. 73
Provision of GCE A level subjects 2013 - Data
Gill, T. (2014) Statistics Report Series No. 73 - Data
Uptake of GCE A level subjects 2013
Gill, T. (2014) Statistics Report Series No. 72
Uptake of GCE A level subjects 2013 - Data
Gill, T. (2014) Statistics Report Series No. 72 - Data
Provision of GCSE subjects 2013
Gill, T. (2014) Statistics Report Series No. 71
Provision of GCSE subjects 2013 - Data
Gill, T. (2014) Statistics Report Series No. 71 - Data
Provision of GCSE subjects 2012

Gill, T. (2014) Statistics Report Series No. 56 (revised)

Provision of GCSE subjects 2011
Gill, T. (2014) Statistics Report Series No. 43 (revised)
GCSE uptake 2013
Gill, T. (2014) Statistics Report Series No. 70
GCSE uptake 2013 - Data
Gill, T. (2014) Statistics Report Series No. 70 - Data
Uptake of GCE A level subjects 2012
Gill, T. (2014) Statistics Report Series No. 55 (revised)

2013

GCSE Uptake and Results, by School Type 2003-2012
Gill, T. (2013) Statistics Report Series No. 68
A-Level Uptake and Results, by School Type 2003-2012
Gill, T. (2013) Statistics Report Series No. 67
GCSE Uptake and Results, by Gender 2003-2012
Gill, T. (2013) Statistics Report Series No. 66
A-Level Uptake and Results, by Gender 2003-2012
Gill, T. (2013) Statistics Report Series No. 65
The accuracy of forecast grades for OCR A levels in June 2012
Gill, T. & Chang, Y. (2013) Statistics Report Series No. 64
Uptake of level 2 qualifications in English schools 2008-2012
Gill, T. (2013) Statistics Report Series No. 61
Provision of level 2 qualifications in English schools 2008-2012
Gill, T. (2013) Statistics Report Series No. 60
Uptake of level 3 qualifications in English schools 2008-2012
Gill, T. (2013) Statistics Report Series No. 59
Provision of level 3 qualifications in English schools 2008-2012
Gill, T. (2013) Statistics Report Series No. 58
Uptake of GCSE subjects 2012
Gill, T. (2013) Statistics Report Series No. 57
Provision of GCE A level subjects 2012
Gill, T. (2013) Statistics Report Series No. 54
How accurate are examiners’ holistic judgements of script quality?
Gill, T. and Bramley, T. (2013). How accurate are examiners’ holistic judgements of script quality? Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice. 20(3), 308-324.
Investigating the relationship between aspects of countries’ assessment systems and achievement on the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) tests
Gill, T., and Benton, T. (2013). Cambridge Assessment Research Report. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Assessment.

2012

GCSE Uptake and Results, by School Type 2002-2011
Gill, T. (2012) Statistics Report Series No. 51
A-Level Uptake and Results, by School Type 2002-2011
Gill, T. (2012) Statistics Report Series No. 50
GCSE Uptake and Results, by Gender 2002-2011
Gill, T. (2012) Statistics Report Series No. 49
A-Level Uptake and Results, by Gender 2002-2011
Gill, T. (2012) Statistics Report Series No. 48
Age distribution of GCSE candidates in England 2011
Gill, T. (2012) Statistics Report Series No. 45
Uptake of GCSE subjects 2011
Gill, T. (2012) Statistics Report Series No. 44
Uptake of GCE A level subjects 2011
Gill, T. (2012) Statistics Report Series No. 42
Provision of GCE A level subjects 2011
Gill, T. and Chang, Y. (2011) Statistics Report Series No. 41
Uptake of GCSE subjects 2010
Gill, T. (2012) Statistics Report Series No. 35 - revised
Uptake of two-subject combinations of the most popular A levels 2001-2010
Gill, T. (2012) Statistics Report Series No. 37 - revised
Provision of GCSE subjects 2010
Gill, T. (2011) Statistics Report Series No. 34 (revised)
Students’ and teachers’ views and experiences of A Level module re-sits
Gill, T. and Suto, I. (2012) Paper presented at British Educational Research Association (BERA) conference, Manchester, September 2012
Uptake of GCE A level subjects 2010
Gill, T. (2012) Statistics Report Series No. 28 - revised
Using the NPD and PLASC in examinations research
Grayson, R., Gill, T., Emery, J. and Vidal Rodeiro, C.L. (2012).

2011

GCSE Uptake and Results, by School Type 2002-2010
Gill, T. (2011) Statistics Report Series No. 33
A level Uptake and Results, by School Type 2002-2010
Gill, T. (2011) Statistics Report Series No. 32
GCSE Uptake and Results, by Gender 2002-2010
Gill, T. (2011) Statistics Report Series No. 31
A level Uptake and Results, by Gender 2002-2010
Gill, T. (2011) Statistics Report Series No. 30
What factors determine the uptake of A level physics?
Gill, T. and Bell, J.F. (2011) International Journal of Science Education
Provision of GCE A level subjects 2010
Gill, T. and Chang, Y. (2011) Statistics Report Series No. 27
The accuracy of forecast grades for OCR A levels
Gill, T. and Rushton, N. (2011) Statistics Report Series No. 26
Does doing a critical thinking A level confer any advantage for candidates in their perfomance on other A levels?

Black, B. and Gill, T. (2011). Does doing a critical thinking A level confer any advantage for candidates in their perfomance on other A levels? Research Matters: A Cambridge Assessment publication, 11, 20-24.

Critical Thinking AS level was introduced in schools in 2001. There is much research that shows that the teaching of Critical Thinking (CT) does improve critical thinking skills. However, there is less research which shows whether CT skills can be profitably transferred to other subject domains. The purpose of this research was to investigate whether taking an AS level in CT improves performance in other A levels. Using national examination data from 2005 and 2006 we compared the performance of CT students with those not taking CT. The results of both a basic comparison of mean A level performance and a regression analysis (which accounts for prior attainment) showed a significant and positive effect of taking CT, compared with not doing so. According to the regression results, the difference was equivalent to about one tenth of a grade per A level, although the difference was greater for those achieving a higher CT grade. 

2010

GCSE uptake and results, by school type 2002-2009
Gill, T. (2010) Statistics Report Series No. 24
A level uptake and results, by school type 2002-2009
Gill, T. (2010) Statistics Report Series No. 23
GCSE Uptake and Results, by Gender 2002-2009
Gill, T. (2010) Statistics Report Series No. 22
A-level uptake and results, by gender 2002-2009
Gill, T. (2010) Statistics Report Series No. 21
An analysis of examination uptake and performance of schools in the Academies programme
Gill, T. (2010) British Educational Research Association, Warwick
Evaluating the rank-ordering method for standard maintaining
Bramley, T. and Gill, T. (2010) Research Papers in Education, 25, 3, 293-317
Must examiners meet in order to standardise their marking? An experiment with new and experienced examiners of GCE AS Psychology

Raikes, N., Fidler, J. and Gill, T. (2010). Must examiners meet in order to standardise their marking? An experiment with new and experienced examiners of GCE AS Psychology. Research Matters: A Cambridge Assessment publication, 10, 21-27.

When high-stakes examinations are marked by a panel of examiners, the examiners must be standardised so that candidates are not advantaged or disadvantaged according to which examiner marks their work.

It is common practice for Awarding Bodies’ standardisation processes to include a “Standardisation” or “Co-ordination” meeting, where all examiners meet to be briefed by the Principal Examiner and to discuss the application of the mark scheme in relation to specific examples of candidates’ work.  Research into the effectiveness of standardisation meetings has cast doubt on their usefulness, however, at least for experienced examiners.  

In the present study we addressed the following research questions:

1. What is the effect on marking accuracy of including a face-to-face meeting as part of an examiner standardisation process?
2. How does the effect on marking accuracy of a face-to-face meeting vary with the type of question being marked (short-answer or essay) and the level of experience of the examiners?
3. To what extent do examiners carry forward standardisation on one set of questions to a different but very similar set of questions?

How old are GCSE candidates?
Gill, T. (2010) Statistics Report Series No. 20
GCSE Uptake and Results, by School Type 2002-2008
Gill, T. (2010) Statistics Report Series No. 19
A-level uptake and results, by school type 2002-2008
Gill, T. (2010) Statistics Report Series No. 18
Awarding body statistics on the uptake of subjects at GCSE, including gender breakdown 2002-2008
Gill, T. (2010) Statistics Report Series No. 17 (update of report No. 13)
A-Level Uptake and Results, by Gender 2002-2008
Gill, T. (2010) Statistics Report Series No. 16 (update of report No. 12)
Can emotional and social abilities predict differences in progress at secondary school? (Poster presentation)

2009

Aspects of AS and A-level Physics Uptake
Gill, T., Vidal Rodeiro, C.L. and Bell, J.F. (2009) British Educational Research Association (BERA) Annual Conference
Must examiners meet in order to standardise their marking? An experiment with new and experienced examiners of GCE AS Psychology
Raikes, N., Fidler, J. and Gill, T. (2009). Presented at the British Educational Research Association (BERA) Annual Conference, Manchester, UK, 5 September 2009.
How effective is fast and automated feedback to examiners in tackling the size of marking errors?

Sykes, E., Novakovic, N., Greatorex, J., Bell, J., Nadas, R. and Gill, T. (2009). How effective is fast and automated feedback to examiners in tackling the size of marking errors? Research Matters: A Cambridge Assessment publication, 8, 8-15.

Reliability is important in national assessment systems. Therefore, there is a good deal of research about examiners’ marking reliability. However, some questions remain unanswered due to the changing context of e-marking, particularly the opportunity for fast and automated feedback to examiners on their marking. Some of these questions are:

•    will iterative feedback result in greater marking accuracy than only one feedback session?
•    will encouraging examiners to be consistent (rather than more accurate) result in greater marking accuracy?
•    will encouraging examiners to be more accurate (rather than more consistent) result in greater marking accuracy?

Thirty three examiners were matched into four experimental groups based on severity of their marking. All examiners marked the same 100 candidate responses, in the same short time scale. Group 1 received one session of feedback about their accuracy. Group 2 received three iterative sessions of feedback about the accuracy of their marking. Group 3 received one session of feedback about their consistency. Group 4 received three iterative sessions of feedback about the consistency of their marking. Absolute differences between examiners’ marking and a reference mark were analysed using a general linear model. The results of the present analysis pointed towards the answer to all the research questions being “no”. The results presented in this article are not intended to be used to evaluate current marking practices. Rather the article is intended to contribute to answering the research questions, and developing an evidence base for the principles that should be used to design and improve marking practices.

Uptake of GCE AS level subjects in England 2001-2006
Gill, T. (2009) Statistics Report Series No.8

2008

Assessment Instruments over Time
Elliott, G., Black, B. Ireland, J., Gill, T., Bramley, T. Johnson, N. and Curcin, M. (2008) International Association for Educational Assessment (IAEA) Conference, Cambridge
How accurate are examiners’ judgments of script quality?
Gill, T. & Bramley, T. (2008) British Educational Research Association (BERA) Annual Conference

2007

An investigation of standard maintaining in GCSE English using a rank-ordering method
Gill, T. (2007) British Educational Research Association (BERA) Annual Conference

Research Matters

Research Matters

Research Matters is our free biannual publication which allows us to share our assessment research, in a range of fields, with the wider assessment community.